Kaplan-Meier curves for PFS according to with and without loss-of-function mutations of TP53 in patients who received alectinib (A) or either of ALK-TKIs (alectinib, crizotinib, brigatinib, lorlatinib, ceritinib) (B) as the first TKI treatment.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTIn ALK-rearranged non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), impacts of concomitant genetic alterations on targeted therapies with ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKI) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigated genetic alterations related to ALK-TKI resistance using clinico-genomic data and explored effective therapies to overcome the resistance in preclinical models through the identification of underlying molecular mechanisms.
We used integrated clinical and next-generation sequencing data generated in a nationwide lung cancer genome screening project (LC-SCRUM-Japan). ALK-rearranged NSCLC cell lines expressing wild-type or mutant TP53 were used to evaluate cellular apoptosis induced by ALK-TKIs.
In 90 patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who were treated with a selective ALK-TKI, alectinib, TP53 comutated patients showed significantly worse progression-free survival (PFS) than TP53 wild-type patients [median PFS, 11.7 months (95% confidence interval, CI, 6.3–not reached, NR) vs. NR (23.6–NR); P = 0.0008; HR, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.17–0.65)]. ALK-rearranged NSCLC cell lines that lost p53 function were resistant to alectinib-induced apoptosis, but a proteasome inhibitior, ixazomib, markedly induced apoptosis in the alectinib-treated cells by increasing the expression of a proapoptotic protein, Noxa, which bound to an antiapoptotic protein, Mcl-1. In subcutaneous tumor models, combination of ixazomib and alectinib prominently induced tumor regression and apoptosis even though the tumors were generated from ALK-rearranged NSCLC cells with nonfunctional p53.
These clinical and preclinical results indicate concomitant TP53 mutations reduce the efficacy of alectinib for ALK-rearranged NSCLC and the combined use of a proteasome inhibitor with alectinib is a promising therapy for ALK-rearranged/TP53-mutated NSCLC.