Includes additional Western blots, isobolograms, and cell survival assays. Figure S1. (A) Western blots were performed on the three cell lines to analyze the levels of p-ERK, which is a key protein involved in cellular proliferation and growth; Figure S2. (A) MTS assays on additional cell lines (e.g. H23, SK-LU-1, and Calu-1) were performed with increasing concentrations of both MEKi and CDKi; Figure S3. . Cells were treated with various concentrations of GSK1120212 in combination with PD0332991 for 72 hours, and cell viability was measured by MTS assay (left); Figure S4. Isobologram for the combination of GSK1120212 with PD0332991 in A549 and H460 cell lines; Figure S5. MEK inhibitor enhances radiosensitivity of KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: To investigate the potential roles that p16 (CDKN2A) and RB activation have in sensitization to MEK inhibitor in resistant KRAS-mutant non–small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) in vitro and in vivo.Experimental Design: Cell viability was measured with MTS assays. Effects of administration of radiation and combination drug treatments were evaluated by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, and Western blots. DNA repair was assessed using immunofluorescent analysis. Finally, lung cancer xenografts were used to examine in vivo effects of drug treatment and radiation therapy.Results: In this study, we showed that sensitivity to MEK inhibitor correlated to the RB/p16/CDK4 pathway and knockdown of RB induced resistance in cell lines sensitive to MEK inhibitor. Also, overexpression of p16 and inhibition of CDK4 had the ability to sensitize normally resistant cell lines. Our data indicated that the MEK inhibitor (trametinib, GSK112012) cooperated with the CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib, PD0332991) to strongly reduce cell viability of KRAS-mutant NSCLCs that were resistant to the MEK inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we report for the first time that resistance of KRAS-mutant NSCLCs to MEK inhibitor is, at least partly, due to p16 mutation status, and we described a drug combination that efficiently reactivates the RB tumor suppressor pathway to trigger radiosensitizing effects, apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MEK inhibitor in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitor has significant anti-KRAS–mutant NSCLC activity and radiosensitizing effect in preclinical models, potentially providing a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced KRAS-mutant NSCLCs. Clin Cancer Res; 22(1); 122–33. ©2016 AACR.