American Association for Cancer Research
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Supplemental Figure S1 from Knockdown of Apolipoprotein E Enhanced Sensitivity of Hep3B Cells to Cardiac Steroids via Regulating Na+/K+-ATPase Signalosome

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posted on 2023-04-03, 15:41 authored by Miao Liu, Li-Xing Feng, Peng Sun, Wang Liu, Tian Mi, Min Lei, Wanying Wu, Baohong Jiang, Min Yang, Lihong Hu, De-An Guo, Xuan Liu

Chemical structures of the cardiac steroids.


Shanghai Science & Technology Support

Shanghai Science & Technology Innovation Action Program

National Nature Science Foundation of China

National Science & Technology Major Project of China



This study compared the sensitivity of human hepatoma Hep3B, SK-HEP-1, SMMC-7721, and BEL-7402 cells to cardiac steroids, including bufalin (BF), a bufalin derivative (BF211), ouabain (OUA), and digitoxin (DIG). Hep3B cells exhibited relatively low sensitivity to cardiac steroids. Expression levels of subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase were high in Hep3B cells. However, colocalization of Na+/K+-ATPase and caveolin was nearly undetectable in Hep3B cells. By using RNA-Seq technology, we found a total of 36 genes to be differentially expressed between Hep3B cells and SK-HEP-1 cells, which are highly sensitive to cardiac steroids. Our bioinformatics analysis determined that these genes were mostly comprised of extracellular space, protein binding, and extracellular region. Among these 36 genes, apolipoprotein E (APOE) played a critical role, as knockdown APOE expression induced colocalization of Na+/K+-ATPase and caveolin and increased sensitivity of Hep3B cells to both proliferation-inhibiting and cytotoxic effects of BF or BF211. Also, the effects of BF on PI3K/AKT/GSK3β and apoptosis signal cascades were enhanced in APOE knockdown cells. The results of our study confirmed the role of Na+/K+-ATPase signalosome in cytotoxicity of cardiac steroids and suggested that APOE regulated the sensitivity of cells to cardiac steroids by affecting formation and function of Na+/K+-ATPase signalosome. In addition, intercellular interaction with high level of Na+/K+-ATPase β1 subunit may be also a factor in the low sensitivity of Hep3B cells to cardiac steroids. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2955–65. ©2016 AACR.