American Association for Cancer Research
epi-23-0258_supplemental_figure_1_suppsf1.pptx (60.69 kB)

Supplemental Figure 1 from Gene–Environment Analyses Reveal Novel Genetic Candidates with Prenatal Tobacco Exposure in Relation to Risk for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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posted on 2023-12-01, 08:43 authored by Charlie Zhong, Shaobo Li, Katti Arroyo, Libby M. Morimoto, Adam J. de Smith, Catherine Metayer, Xiaomei Ma, Scott C. Kogan, W. James Gauderman, Joseph L. Wiemels

Manhattan plot of disease-gene associations and ALL risk. The figure displays P-values across the genome for gene-ALL genotype additive model results.


National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

United States Department of Health and Human Services

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Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP)

National Institutes of Health (NIH)



Associations between maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have yielded mixed results. This may be due to biases in self-reported smoking or other differences in individual-level risk factors. We utilized a biological marker of maternal tobacco exposure to evaluate the association between maternal tobacco exposure during pregnancy, genetics, and subsequent childhood ALL risk in two large population-based studies of childhood ALL in California. Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke was assessed with a validated methylation marker (cg05575921) of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene in newborn dried blood spots. We adjusted for sex, birthweight, gestational age, mode of delivery, year of birth, AHRR quantitative trait locus (mQTL) rs77111113, and a polygenetic risk score for childhood ALL. We additionally adjusted for principal components in a gene–environment interaction testing method that incorporates gene-only and environment-only effects along with interactions. AHRR hypomethylation overall was not associated with childhood ALL. In gene–environment interaction testing, several genetic variants displayed significant interaction with AHRR hypomethylation and childhood ALL. Our results suggest that novel candidates in PTPRK and DPP6 may play a role in tobacco-related leukemogenesis. Further research is necessary to better understand the effects of tobacco and these variants on childhood ALL risk. Despite the lack of an overall “main effect,” tobacco exposure during pregnancy affects childhood ALL risk depending on specific genetic variants.