ARTICLE ABSTRACTThe clinical behavior of ampullary adenocarcinoma varies widely. Targeted tumor sequencing may better define biologically distinct subtypes to improve diagnosis and management.
The hidden-genome algorithm, a multilevel meta-feature regression model, was trained on a prospectively sequenced cohort of 3,411 patients (1,001 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 165 distal bile-duct adenocarcinoma, 2,245 colorectal adenocarcinoma) and subsequently applied to targeted panel DNA-sequencing data from ampullary adenocarcinomas. Genomic classification (i.e., colorectal vs. pancreatic) was correlated with standard histologic classification [i.e., intestinal (INT) vs. pancreatobiliary (PB)] and clinical outcome.
Colorectal genomic subtype prediction was primarily influenced by mutations in APC and PIK3CA, tumor mutational burden, and DNA mismatch repair (MMR)–deficiency signature. Pancreatic genomic-subtype prediction was dictated by KRAS gene alterations, particularly KRAS G12D, KRAS G12R, and KRAS G12V. Distal bile-duct adenocarcinoma genomic subtype was most influenced by copy-number gains in the MDM2 gene. Despite high (73%) concordance between immunomorphologic subtype and genomic category, there was significant genomic heterogeneity within both histologic subtypes. Genomic scores with higher colorectal probability were associated with greater survival compared with those with a higher pancreatic probability.
The genomic classifier provides insight into the heterogeneity of ampullary adenocarcinoma and improves stratification, which is dictated by the proportion of colorectal and pancreatic genomic alterations. This approach is reproducible with available molecular testing and obviates subjective histologic interpretation.