ARTICLE ABSTRACTLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The treatment of patients with lung cancer harboring mutant EGFR with orally administered EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has been a paradigm shift. Osimertinib and rociletinib are third-generation irreversible EGFR TKIs targeting the EGFR T790M mutation. Osimertinib is the current standard of care for patients with EGFR mutations due to increased efficacy, lower side effects, and enhanced brain penetrance. Unfortunately, all patients develop resistance. Genomic approaches have primarily been used to interrogate resistance mechanisms. Here we characterized the proteome and phosphoproteome of a series of isogenic EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines that are either sensitive or resistant to these drugs, comprising the most comprehensive proteomic dataset resource to date to investigate third generation EGFR TKI resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Unbiased global quantitative mass spectrometry uncovered alterations in signaling pathways, revealed a proteomic signature of epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and identified kinases and phosphatases with altered expression and phosphorylation in TKI-resistant cells. Decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of key sites in the phosphatase SHP2 suggests its inhibition, resulting in subsequent inhibition of RAS/MAPK and activation of PI3K/AKT pathways. Anticorrelation analyses of this phosphoproteomic dataset with published drug-induced P100 phosphoproteomic datasets from the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures program predicted drugs with the potential to overcome EGFR TKI resistance. The PI3K/MTOR inhibitor dactolisib in combination with osimertinib overcame resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this study reveals global proteomic alterations upon third generation EGFR TKI resistance and highlights potential novel approaches to overcome resistance.
Global quantitative proteomics reveals changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome in lung cancer cells resistant to third generation EGFR TKIs, identifying the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor dactolisib as a potential approach to overcome resistance.