ARTICLE ABSTRACTContinuous activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is important for progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and acquired resistance to antiangiogenic multikinase and mTOR inhibitors. Recently, HIF2α antagonists PT2385 and PT2399 were developed and are being evaluated in a phase I clinical trial for advanced or metastatic clear cell RCC (ccRCC). However, resistance to HIF2α antagonists would be expected to develop. In this study, we identified signals activated by HIF2α deficiency as candidate mediators of resistance to the HIF2α antagonists. We established sunitinib-resistant tumor cells in vivo and created HIF2α-deficient variants of these cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Mechanistic investigations revealed that a regulator of the serine biosynthesis pathway, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), was upregulated commonly in HIF2α-deficient tumor cells along with the serine biosynthesis pathway itself. Accordingly, treatment with a PHGDH inhibitor reduced the growth of HIF2α-deficient tumor cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing apoptosis. Our findings identify the serine biosynthesis pathway as a source of candidate therapeutic targets to eradicate advanced or metastatic ccRCC resistant to HIF2α antagonists. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6321–9. ©2017 AACR.