Real-time RT-PCR analysis reveals expression of certain circadian clock genes to be unaltered in cancer/transformed cells compared to normal. A. Relative expression of REV-ERBβ and RORβ in transformed SVWI38 compared to normal WI38 fibroblast cells. B. Relative expression of CRY2 (a), PER3 (b), REV-ERBβ (c) and RORβ (d) in cancer cell lines compared to non-cancer ARPE19 cells.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTThere is accumulating evidence for a link between circadian clock disruption and cancer progression. In this study, the circadian clock was investigated in cervical and esophageal cancers, to determine whether it is disrupted in these cancer types. Oncomine datamining revealed downregulation of multiple members of the circadian clock gene family in cancer patient tissue compared with matched normal epithelium. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed significant downregulation of CLOCK, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERBα, and RORα in esophageal tumor tissue. In cell line models, expression of several circadian clock genes was significantly decreased in transformed and cancer cells compared with noncancer controls, and protein levels were dysregulated. These effects were mediated, at least in part, by methylation, where CLOCK, CRY1, and RORα gene promoter regions were found to be methylated in cancer cells. Overexpression of CLOCK and PER2 in cancer cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and activation of RORα and REV-ERBα using agonists resulted in cancer cell death, while having a lesser effect on normal epithelial cells. Despite dysregulated circadian clock gene expression, cervical and esophageal cancer cells maintain functional circadian oscillations after Dexamethasone synchronization, as revealed using real-time bioluminescence imaging, suggesting that their circadian clock mechanisms are intact.
This study is a first to describe dysregulated, yet oscillating, circadian clock gene expression in cervical and esophageal cancer cells, and knowledge of circadian clock functioning in these cancer types has the potential to inform chronotherapy approaches, where the timing of administration of chemotherapy is optimized on the basis of the circadian clock.