ARTICLE ABSTRACTTumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play an important role in maintaining the immunosuppressive state of the tumor microenvironment (TME). High levels of CD163+ TAMs specifically are associated with poor prognosis in many solid tumor types. Targeting TAMs may represent a key approach in development of the next generation of cancer immune therapeutics. Members of the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B (LILRB) family, including LILRB2 (ILT4), are known to transmit inhibitory signals in macrophages and other myeloid cells. Leveraging bulk and single cell RNA-sequencing datasets, as well as extensive immunophenotyping of human tumors, we found that LILRB2 is highly expressed on CD163+ CD11b+ cells in the TME and that LILRB2 expression correlates with CD163 expression across many tumor types. To target LILRB2, we have developed JTX-8064, a highly potent and selective antagonistic mAb. JTX-8064 blocks LILRB2 binding to its cognate ligands, including classical and nonclassical MHC molecules. In vitro, JTX-8064 drives the polarization of human macrophages and dendritic cells toward an immunostimulatory phenotype. As a result, human macrophages treated with a LILRB2 blocker are reprogrammed to increase the activation of autologous T cells in co-culture systems. Furthermore, JTX-8064 significantly potentiates the activity of anti-PD-1 in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. In a human tumor explant culture, pharmacodynamic activity of JTX-8064 was observed in monotherapy and in combination with anti-PD-1. Collectively, our work provides strong translational and preclinical rationale to target LILRB2 in cancer.