American Association for Cancer Research
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Fig. S1 from TSC2 Deficiency Unmasks a Novel Necrosis Pathway That Is Suppressed by the RIP1/RIP3/MLKL Signaling Cascade

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posted on 2023-03-31, 00:26 authored by Piotr T. Filipczak, Cindy Thomas, Wenshu Chen, Andrew Salzman, Jacob D. McDonald, Yong Lin, Steven A. Belinsky

Pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD does not protect from cell death induced with BSO, auranofin, Nec-1 and NSA combinations



Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multiorgan disorder characterized by the development of neoplastic lesions in kidney, lung, brain, heart, and skin. It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in the hyperactivation of mTOR- and Raf/MEK/MAPK–dependent signaling that stimulates tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Despite its oncogenic effect, cells with TSC deficiency were more sensitive to oxidative stress and dependent on mitochondrial metabolism, providing a rationale for a new therapeutic approach. The current study shows that simultaneous inhibition of two major pathways regulating redox homeostasis using l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, glutathione synthesis inhibitor) and auranofin (thioredoxin reductase inhibitor) induces oxidative burst, mitochondrial damage, and necrotic cell death in TSC-deficient cells in a highly synergistic and cell context–specific manner. Furthermore, blocking RIP1/RIP3/MLKL–dependent signaling using chemical inhibitors necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and necrosulfonamide (NSA) synergizes with BSO and auranofin in killing TSC-deficient cells. Expression analysis demonstrated that RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL protein levels are elevated in cells with TSC2 deficiency, and their inactivation enhances mitochondrial dysfunction in a glutaminolysis-dependent and autophagy-independent manner. Finally, supplementation with the mitochondrial metabolite α-ketoglutarate, whose synthesis is regulated by RIP1/RIP3/MLKL, rescues cells from the sensitizing effect of Nec-1 and NSA. Together, this study identifies a previously unrecognized novel regulated necrotic death pathway that involves mitochondrial homeostasis, is suppressed by the RIP1/RIP3/MLKL signaling in TSC-deficient cells, and could be a promising therapeutic target for TSC-associated tumors. Cancer Res; 76(24); 7130–9. ©2016 AACR.