American Association for Cancer Research
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Table S1 from Tumor Progression Is Mediated by Thymosin-β4 through a TGFβ/MRTF Signaling Axis

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posted on 2023-04-03, 17:21 authored by Tsuyoshi Morita, Ken'ichiro Hayashi

Table S1 shows list of PCR primers and siRNAs used in this study.






Although enhanced thymosin β4 (TMSB4X/Tβ4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that TGFβ facilitates Tβ4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF), which are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In murine mammary gland cells (NMuMG), Tβ4 upregulation is required for full induction of a MRTF-regulated EMT gene expression program after TGFβ stimulation. Tβ4 levels are transcriptionally regulated via the novel cis-acting element AGACAAAG, which interacts with Smad and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) to synergistically activate the Tβ4 promoter downstream of TGFβ. Murine skin melanoma cells (B16F0 and B16F1) also show the expression regulation of Tβ4 by Smad and TCF/LEF. Tβ4-knockout B16F1 (Tβ4 KO) clones show significantly diminished expression level of tumor-associated genes, which is regulated by the TGFβ/MRTFs pathway. In multiple human cancers, Tβ4 levels correlate positively with TGFβ1 and the tumor-associated gene expression levels through processes that respectively depend on TGFβ receptor 1 (TGFBR1) and MRTF expression. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses demonstrate that high Tβ4 expression associates with poor prognosis in an SRF expression–dependent manner in several cancers. In mice, Tβ4 KO clones show significantly decreased experimental metastatic potential; furthermore, ectopic expression of constitutively active MRTF-A fully restores the diminished metastatic activity. In conclusion, the TGFβ/Tβ4/MRTF/SRF pathway is critical for metastasis and tumor progression.Implications: These findings define a molecular mechanism underlying a tumor-promoting function of thymosin β4 through activation of MRTF/SRF signaling. Mol Cancer Res; 16(5); 880–93. ©2018 AACR.