ARTICLE ABSTRACTPurpose: We sought to identify the genomic abnormalities in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) arising in ovarian mature cystic teratoma (MCT), a rare gynecological malignancy of poor prognosis.Experimental design: We performed copy number, mutational state, and zygosity analysis of 151 genes in SCC arising in MCT (n = 25) using next-generation sequencing. The presence of high-/intermediate-risk HPV genotypes was assessed by quantitative PCR. Genomic events were correlated with clinical features and outcome.Results: MCT had a low mutation burden with a mean of only one mutation per case. Zygosity analyses of MCT indicated four separate patterns, suggesting that MCT can arise from errors at various stages of oogenesis. A total of 244 abnormalities were identified in 79 genes in MCT-associated SCC, and the overall mutational burden was high (mean 10.2 mutations per megabase). No SCC was positive for HPV. The most frequently altered genes in SCC were TP53 (20/25 cases, 80%), PIK3CA (13/25 cases, 52%), and CDKN2A (11/25 cases, 44%). Mutation in TP53 was associated with improved overall survival. In 8 of 20 cases with TP53 mutations, two or more variants were identified, which were bi-allelic.Conclusions: Ovarian SCC arising in MCT has a high mutational burden, with TP53 mutation the most common abnormality. The presence of TP53 mutation is a good prognostic factor. SCC arising in MCT share similar mutation profiles to other SCC. Given their rarity, they should be included in basket studies that recruit patients with SCC of other organs. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7633–40. ©2017 AACR.