Supplementary Table 1. Overview of the study cohort and the clinical data. This table contains basic clinical information, including age, sex, whether tumors were uni- or bilateral, histology, stage, risk group, treatment to which the resection specimen analyzed was subjected to, the final outcome and the record of adverse events.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTWhile patients with intermediate-risk (IR) Wilms tumors now have an overall survival (OS) rate of almost 90%, those affected by high-stage tumors with diffuse anaplasia have an OS of only around 50%. We here identify key events in the pathogenesis of diffuse anaplasia by mapping cancer cell evolution over anatomic space in Wilms tumors.
We spatially mapped subclonal landscapes in a retrospective cohort of 20 Wilms tumors using high-resolution copy-number profiling and TP53 mutation analysis followed by clonal deconvolution and phylogenetic reconstruction. Tumor whole-mount sections (WMS) were utilized to characterize the distribution of subclones across anatomically distinct tumor compartments.
Compared with non-diffuse anaplasia Wilms tumors, tumors with diffuse anaplasia showed a significantly higher number of genetically distinct tumor cell subpopulations and more complex phylogenetic trees, including high levels of phylogenetic species richness, divergence, and irregularity. All regions with classical anaplasia showed TP53 alterations. TP53 mutations were frequently followed by saltatory evolution and parallel loss of the remaining wild-type (WT) allele in different regions. Morphologic features of anaplasia increased with copy-number aberration (CNA) burden and regressive features. Compartments demarcated by fibrous septae or necrosis/regression were frequently (73%) associated with the emergence of new clonal CNAs, although clonal sweeps were rare within these compartments.
Wilms tumors with diffuse anaplasia display significantly more complex phylogenies compared with non-diffuse anaplasia Wilms tumors, including features of saltatory and parallel evolution. The subclonal landscape of individual tumors was constrained by anatomic compartments, which should be considered when sampling tissue for precision diagnostics.