American Association for Cancer Research
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TABLE 3 from High-resolution Diffusion-weighted Imaging to Detect Changes in Tumor Size and ADC, and Predict Adverse Biopsy Histology during Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

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posted on 2024-03-27, 14:20 authored by Rola Saouaf, Yibin Xie, Sungjin Kim, Yaniv Raphael, Christopher Nguyen, Daniel Luthringer, Timothy J. Daskivich, Eric Lo, Mourad Tighiouart, Debiao Li, Hyung L. Kim

Standard MRI


HHS | NIH | National Cancer Institute (NCI)



Majority of men with low-risk prostate cancer can be managed with active surveillance (AS). This study evaluates a high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HR-DWI) technique to predict adverse biopsy histology (AH), defined as Gleason score ≥7 on any biopsy or ≥3 increase in number of positive biopsy cores on systematic biopsies. We test the hypothesis that high-grade disease and progressing disease undergo subtle changes during even short intervals that can be detected by HR-DWI. In a prospective clinical trial, serial multiparametric MRIs, incorporating HR-DWI and standard DWI (S-DWI) were performed approximately 12 months apart prior to prostate biopsy (n = 59). HR-DWI, which uses reduced field-of-view and motion compensation techniques, was compared with S-DWI. HR-DWI had a 3-fold improvement in spacial resolution compared with S-DWI as confirmed using imaging phantoms. For detecting AH, multiparametric MRI using HR-DWI had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 83.9%, and MRI using S-DWI had a sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 54.8%. The AUC for HR-DWI was significantly higher (0.794 vs. 0.631, P = 0.014). Secondary analyses of univariable predictors of AH showed tumor size increase [OR 16.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.06–69.48; P < 0.001] and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) decrease (OR 5.06; 95% CI: 1.39–18.38; P = 0.014) on HR-DWI were significant predictors of AH. HR-DWI outperforms S-DWI in predicting AH. Patient with AH have tumors that change in size and ADC that could be detected using HR-DWI. Future studies with longer follow-up should assess HR-DWI for predicting disease progression during AS. We report on a prospective clinical trial using a MRI that has three times the resolution of standard MRI. During AS for prostate cancer, two high-resolution MRIs performed approximately a year apart can detect tumor changes that predict the presence of aggressive cancers that should be considered for curative therapy such as prostatectomy or radiation.

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