Shanghai Science and Technology Development Foundation (Shanghai Science and Technology Foundation)
MOST | National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
Ministry of Health of China | Wu Jieping Medical Foundation (WJMF)
ARTICLE ABSTRACTSequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a minimally invasive approach to reveal the genomic alterations of cancer; however, its comparison with sequencing of tumor tissue has not been well documented in real-world patients with aggressive-variant prostate cancer (AVPC). Concordance of genomic alterations was assessed between progressive tumor tissue and matched ctDNA by next-generation sequencing for 63 patients with AVPC. Associations of genomic alterations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were investigated using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses. A total of 161 somatic mutations (SMs) and 84 copy-number variants (CNVs) were detected in tumors, of which 97 were also found in ctDNA, giving concordance of 39.6% (97/245) across all SMs and CNVs, 49.7% for SMs only and 20.2% for CNVs only. Across all patients with AVPC, chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer median PFS (6 vs. 0.75 months, P = 0.001) and OS (11 vs. 8 months, P < 0.001) than next-generation hormonal therapy (NHT). Among types of chemotherapy, additional platinum-based chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer median PFS and OS than docetaxel only in patients with TP53, RB1, or PTEN alterations, and in those with ctDNA% ≥ 13.5%. The concordance analysis first provides evidence for combining the sequencing of ctDNA and tumor tissue in real-world patients with AVPC. Chemotherapy is associated with significantly better survival than NHT, and the benefit of additional platinum-based chemotherapy may depend on the presence of alterations in TP53, RB1, or PTEN and on a sufficiently high proportion of ctDNA in patients with AVPC.
AVPC is a highly malignant and heterogeneous disease. Sequencing of ctDNA is a minimally invasive approach to reveal genomic alterations. On the basis of the current real-world study, we found ctDNA does not fully recapitulate the landscape of genomic alterations from progressive tumor tissue in AVPC. We also revealed AVPC can benefit from chemotherapy, especially platinum-based regimens. TP53/RB1/PTEN alterations in ctDNA or tumor tissue could be biomarkers for platinum-based chemotherapy in this setting.