ARTICLE ABSTRACTSystemic metastasis is the major cause of death from melanoma, the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although most patients with melanoma exhibit a substantial gap between onset of primary and metastatic tumors, signaling mechanisms implicated in the period of metastatic latency remain unclear. We hypothesized that melanoma circulating tumor cells (CTC) home to and reside in the bone marrow during the asymptomatic phase of disease progression. Using a strategy to deplete normal cell lineages (Lin−), we isolated CTC-enriched cell populations from the blood of patients with metastatic melanoma, verified by the presence of putative CTCs characterized by melanoma-specific biomarkers and upregulated gene transcripts involved in cell survival and prodevelopment functions. Implantation of Lin− population in NSG mice (CTC-derived xenografts, i.e., CDX), and subsequent transcriptomic analysis of ex vivo bone marrow–resident tumor cells (BMRTC) versus CTC identified protein ubiquitination as a significant regulatory pathway of BMRTC signaling. Selective inhibition of USP7, a key deubiquinating enzyme, arrested BMRTCs in bone marrow locales and decreased systemic micrometastasis. This study provides first-time evidence that the asymptomatic progression of metastatic melanoma can be recapitulated in vivo using patient-isolated CTCs. Furthermore, these results suggest that USP7 inhibitors warrant further investigation as a strategy to prevent progression to overt clinical metastasis.Significance: These findings provide insights into mechanism of melanoma recurrence and propose a novel approach to inhibit systematic metastatic disease by targeting bone marrow-resident tumor cells through pharmacological inhibition of USP7.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/18/5349/F1.large.jpg. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5349–62. ©2018 AACR.