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Supplementary Table from Combined MEK/PD-L1 Inhibition Alters Peripheral Cytokines and Lymphocyte Populations Correlating with Improved Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer

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posted on 2023-04-01, 00:05 authored by Amanda N. Ruggieri, Mark Yarchoan, Subir Goyal, Yuan Liu, Elad Sharon, Helen X. Chen, Brian M. Olson, Chrystal M. Paulos, Bassel F. El-Rayes, Shishir K. Maithel, Nilofer S. Azad, Gregory B. Lesinski
Supplementary Table from Combined MEK/PD-L1 Inhibition Alters Peripheral Cytokines and Lymphocyte Populations Correlating with Improved Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer

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ARTICLE ABSTRACT

Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are aggressive malignancies refractory to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. MEK inhibition (MEKi)-based regimens may have utility in this disease when combined with PD-L1 blockade. We hypothesize that dual MEK/PD-L1 inhibition alters circulating soluble and cellular immune mediators to improve clinical outcomes in patients with advanced BTC. We examined immune features in peripheral blood from 77 patients with advanced BTC enrolled in a phase II clinical trial investigating atezolizumab with or without cobimetinib. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from whole blood to evaluate soluble factors and immune cell populations. Baseline blood samples were additionally compared with healthy donors to identify immune signatures unique to BTC. At baseline, the soluble factors platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF)-BB, placental growth factor (PlGF)-1, IL5, and IL17A were elevated in patients with BTC compared with healthy adult donors, and higher baseline frequencies of CD8+BTLA+ T cells correlated with better overall survival (OS) in this trial. There were also significant treatment-related alterations in several factors, including decreased PDGF-BB following combination treatment, that correlated with improved OS and progression-free survival (PFS). Higher baseline levels of IL23 and RANTES corresponded to improved clinical outcomes following combination treatment. Dual MEK/PD-L1 inhibition increased populations of CD4+TIM3+ and decreased CD8+VISTA+ T cells, correlating with worse OS and better PFS, respectively. This work represents a comprehensive analysis of peripheral immune features in patients with BTC and systemic responses to dual MEK/PD-L1 inhibition. These data support further investigation to understand how MEKi combines with immunotherapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes for patients with advanced BTC.

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