National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)
Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (STCSM)
ARTICLE ABSTRACTKRAS mutations are causally linked to protumor inflammation and are identified as driving factors in tumorigenesis. Here, using multiomics data gathered from a large set of patients, we showed that KRAS mutation was associated with a specific landscape of alternative mRNA splicing that connected to myeloid inflammation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Then, we identified a negative feedback mechanism in which the upregulation of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN)-201/203 due to alternative splicing confers vital anti-inflammatory effects in KRAS-mutant iCCA. In KRAS-mutant iCCA mice, both IL1RN-201/203 upregulation and anakinra treatment ignited a significant antitumor immune response by altering neutrophil recruitment and phenotypes. Furthermore, anakinra treatment synergistically enhanced anti–PD-1 therapy to activate intratumoral GZMB+ CD8+ T cells in KRAS-mutant iCCA mice. Clinically, we found that high IL1RN-201/203 levels in patients with KRAS-mutant iCCA were significantly associated with superior response to anti–PD-1 immunotherapy.
This work describes a novel inflammatory checkpoint mediated by IL1RN alternative splicing variants that may serve as a promising basis to develop therapeutic options for KRAS-mutant iCCA and other cancers.This article is featured in Selected Articles from This Issue, p. 2109