Supplementary Table S3. Comprehensive drug sensitivity and resistance testing with 200 cancer drugs. Cell viability in GIST882 and GIST48 cell lines was measured in five different concentrations over a 10,000-fold concentration range.
ARTICLE ABSTRACTGastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a common type of soft-tissue sarcoma. Imatinib, an inhibitor of KIT, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), and a few other tyrosine kinases, is highly effective for GIST, but advanced GISTs frequently progress on imatinib and other approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) as a potential therapeutic target in GIST cell lines and xenograft models.
The GIST gene expression profile was interrogated in the MediSapiens IST Online transcriptome database comprising human tissue and cancer samples, and PDE3A and PDE3B expression was studied using IHC on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 630 formalin-fixed human tissue samples. GIST cell lines were screened for sensitivity to 217 anticancer compounds, and the efficacy of PDE inhibitors on GIST was further studied in GIST cell lines and patient-derived mouse xenograft models.
GISTs expressed PDE3A and PDE3B frequently compared with other human normal or cancerous tissues both in the in silico database and the TMAs. Anagrelide was identified as the most potent of the PDE3 modulators evaluated. It reduced cell viability, promoted cell death, and influenced cell signaling in GIST cell lines. Anagrelide inhibited tumor growth in GIST xenograft mouse models. Anagrelide was also effective in a GIST xenograft mouse model with KIT exon 9 mutation that may pose a therapeutic challenge, as these GISTs require a high daily dose of imatinib.
PDE3A and PDE3B are frequently expressed in GIST. Anagrelide had anticancer efficacy in GIST xenograft models and warrants further testing in clinical trials.