ARTICLE ABSTRACTMost World Health Organization (WHO) grade I meningiomas carry a favorable prognosis. Some become clinically aggressive with recurrence, invasion, and resistance to conventional therapies (grade 1.5; recurrent/progressive WHO grade I tumors requiring further treatment within 10 years). We aimed to identify biomarker signatures in grade 1.5 meningiomas where histopathology and genetic evaluation has fallen short.
Mass spectrometry (MS)–based phosphoproteomics and peptide chip array kinomics were used to compare grade I and 1.5 tumors. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified alterations in signaling pathways with validation by Western blot analysis. The selected biomarker was evaluated in an independent cohort of 140 samples (79/140 genotyped for meningioma mutations) by tissue microarray and correlated with clinical variables.
The MS-based phosphoproteomics revealed differential Ser/Thr phosphorylation in 32 phosphopeptides. The kinomic profiling by peptide chip array identified 10 phosphopeptides, including a 360% increase in phosphorylation of RB1, in the 1.5 group. IPA of the combined datasets and Western blot validation revealed regulation of AKT and cell-cycle checkpoint cascades. RB1 hyperphosphorylation at the S780 site distinguished grade 1.5 meningiomas in an independent cohort of 140 samples and was associated with decreased progression/recurrence-free survival. Mutations in NF2, TRAF7, SMO, KLF4, and AKT1 E17K did not predict RB1 S780 staining or progression in grade 1.5 meningiomas.
RB1 S780 staining distinguishes grade 1.5 meningiomas, independent of histology, subtype, WHO grade, or genotype. This promising biomarker for risk stratification of histologically bland WHO grade I meningiomas provides insight into the pathways of oncogenesis driving these outlying clinically aggressive tumors.