Supplementary Data from CD59-Regulated Ras Compartmentalization Orchestrates Antitumor T-cell Immunity
ARTICLE ABSTRACTT cell–mediated immunotherapy represents a promising strategy for cancer treatment; however, it has achieved satisfactory clinical responses in only a limited population. Thus, a broader view of the T-cell immune response is required. The Ras/MAPK pathway operates in many important signaling cascades and regulates multiple cellular activities, including T-cell development, proliferation, and function. Herein, we found that the typical membrane-bound complement regulatory protein CD59 is located intracellularly in T cells and that the intracellular form is increased in the T cells of patients with cancer. When intracellular CD59 is abundant, it facilitates Ras transport to the inner plasma membrane via direct interaction; in contrast, when CD59 is insufficient or deficient, Ras is arrested in the Golgi, thus enhancing Ras/MAPK signaling and T-cell activation, proliferation, and function. mCd59ab deficiency almost completely abolished tumor growth and metastasis in tumor-bearing mice, in which CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly increased compared with their proportions in wild-type littermates, and their proportions were inversely correlated with tumor growth. Using bone marrow transplantation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell depletion assays, we further demonstrated the critical roles of these cells in the potent antitumor activity induced by mCd59ab deficiency. Reducing CD59 expression also enhanced MAPK signaling and T-cell activation in human T cells. Therefore, the subcellular compartmentalization of Ras regulated by intracellular CD59 provides spatial selectivity for T-cell activation and a potential T cell–mediated immunotherapeutic strategy.