ARTICLE ABSTRACTThe interaction between the intestinal microbiota and host is much more complex than previously appreciated, and we are now learning that it can have an impact on extraintestinal human diseases. In this issue of the journal (beginning on page 1090), Lin and colleagues present important data linking the microbiota, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 with hepatitis in a mouse model. These provocative results and those from other recent studies highlight the microbiota as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in several liver diseases. Cancer Prev Res; 5(9); 1078–80. ©2012 AACR.