Perspective on this Article from Cruciferous Vegetable Feeding Alters UGT1A1 Activity: Diet- and Genotype-Dependent Changes in Serum Bilirubin in a Controlled Feeding Trial
ARTICLE ABSTRACTChemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared with the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding trial in humans (n = 70), three test diets (single- and double-“dose” cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared with a fruit and vegetable–free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11, and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared with the basal diet (P < 0.03 for all). Within each UGT1A1 genotype, lower bilirubin concentrations were seen in *1/*1 in both single- and double-dose cruciferous diets compared with basal (P < 0.03 for both); *1/*28 in double-dose cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared with basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared with single-dose cruciferous (P < 0.02 for all); and *28/*28 in all vegetable-containing diets compared with basal (P < 0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences; however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals.